How to go to space from the surface of the planet ?
Scope : Anyone living in 2021 knows this scope of this technology. Whether SpaceX or Blue origin are simple examples and leading the way is Elon Musk's SpaceX. Principle is simple to recover all the stages and reuse by fuelling them again just like aeroplane works. As if today we are able to recover the first stage of the rocket only , 2nd or the 3rd stage is burned away in the atmosphere.
Recovering the 2nd/3rd stage or complete rocket 100% is still challenging. It took almost 10yrs of development to be able to recover 1st stage. Recovering the upper stage is challenging as it travels with the speed of the bullet and would have little or no fuel to pull it back to ground to reuse it.
Recover 100% rocket by building only 1 stage rocket , like a glide rocket. Launched in the form of rocket but recovered in the form of airplane landing.
Reuse the upper stage in orbit to build a space station or spaceship by refuelling it to travel exploratory missions to planets or send it to the Moon base for future launches.
High altitude planes
Scope : Carry the rocket or satellite via plane to the upper atmosphere and launch rocket from there to travel out of earth gravity to space , the same way we send satellites by conventional methods or like using reusable rockets.
Use propeller engine planes to carry space rocket and fire around 20kms above from the earth surface.
Use a jet engine plane with internal oxygen and launch from or above the ozone layer or from the stratosphere. # MIG-31 have flown to 37,650 metres (123,520 feet).
Use Rockets as reusable in space by refuelling or building space stations.
Scope : Build a space elevator with ground floor on the earth and top base in the space at 36000 Km. Easy to say but monumental task at present but in future this could become the option to transport man and material from ground to space and then launching spaceships from space. If this is achieved then the cost of transportation would be the cheapest one but initial capital investment would be exorbitant.
Scope : Using the same principle as the High altitude planes delivery method but instead of using planes , launching rocket using magnetic mobility ( like MAGLEV train) inside vacuum tube on earth to the stratosphere or to orbit.
Launch rocket using magnetic slingshot until stratosphere and then ignite rocket at stratosphere to pass into orbit.
Launch satellites using magnetic slingshot directly into lower orbit.
Scope : Using the similar principle of magnetic slingshot ,material can be transported by using a massive artillery gun or rain gun. Due to high G`s created during initial artillery fire , sending rockets / satellites would be difficult as could destroy the PCB`s.
If the problem of high G`s are able to be solved then satellites or materials could be launched using this method.
If high G problems are unsolvable then can be used to fire a artillery round made of fissile material which we want to dispose of. Used fissile materials can be sent into space instead of burning under the earth.