Sunday, 3 August 2014

Pakistani nuclear weapons and delivery systems

Pakistan's nuclear weapon program dates back to at least 1974 and is very advanced, although not as advanced as larger and richer India's is. Since 1987 Pakistan's nuclear weapons have been miniaturized to allow delivery by Pakistan's Air Force fighters and by its IRBMs (intermediate range ballistic missiles) and cruise missiles (including ground/air/naval surface/submarine launched versions).



Pakistan uses both highly enriched uranium and plutonium for its nuclear weapons. The Khushab nuclear site has sufficient plutonium production for 40 to 50 warheads a year by itself. This site is coming on line and is a major expansion of Pakistani plutonium reprocessing capabilities; a fact that concerns a number of nations including America, India, and Israel. In 2000, US military intelligence reportedly estimated Pakistani nuclear weapons at approximately 100 in number. A number of 200 in late 2008/early 2009 is very probable.

Wednesday, 30 July 2014

Block IV Tomahawk


Block IV Tomahawk is the current generation of the Tomahawk family of cruise missiles. The BGM-109 Tomahawk family began life in the 1980s as sub-sonic, low-flying nuclear strike weapons, before being developed into long-range RGM/UGM-109 conventional attack missiles. They’re most frequently launched from submarines and surface ships, and have been the US Navy’s preferred option for initial air strikes in Iraq, Libya, et. al. Britain has also bought Tomahawk missiles, and launches them exclusively from submarines.

Block IV is the latest variant, adding innovative technologies that improve combat flexibility, while dramatically reducing the costs to buy, operate, and support these missiles. That program, under PMA-280, has been one of the USA’s acquisition success stories over the last decade. Now a June 2012 order will add another 361 missiles to the fleet.

Submarine-launched UGM-109 missiles are more expensive than their RGM-109 counterparts, because their launch mechanism is more involved and more strenuous. Their “all-up-round” storage and interface canisters come in 2 types: CLS and TTL. CLS canisters launch UGM-109s from vertical launch tubes installed on many of America’s Los Angeles Class (SSN 719 on), all Virginia Class, and all SSGN Ohio Class submarines. TTL canisters are used to launch Tomahawk missiles from a submarine’s torpedo tubes, which is Britain’s preferred method.

In both cases, a Tomahawk launches “wet”, unlike most anti-ship missiles. The canister remains in the vertical-launch or torpedo tube, while the missile is ejected. Once the UGM-109 has reached a safe distance from the submarine, its rocket booster ignites underwater to power it airborne. That booster falls away just before the missile ignites its jet engine. If the submarine needs to “clear the tube” for torpedoes, anti-ships missiles, mines, UUVs, etc., TTL canisters can be ejected into the sea after launch, as a separate evolution. CLS canisters are removed portside, when the submarine comes into base for servicing and reloading.

Shrinking Indian Power in World


Despite India’s pretensions of an emerging great power, its influence is shrinking -both, internally as well as on its external periphery. Internally, Naxalites and insurgent outfits control more than forty percent of the Indian Territory. Similarly, its borders are volatile with neighbours nibbling into its territory as well influence.

Arrival of militaries of great powers to battle terrorism and secure energy resources has led to rivalry to dominate India’s surroundings creating additional complications. Besides, inability to work out a viable initiative to enhance its geo-political influence in its immediate vicinity, and seize the initiative internally from the disruptive forces by the instrument of good governance, could lead to unraveling of the great Indian dream by 2030, if not earlier.

 If China remains strong and India becomes weak, China will overwhelm India. The reverse will not happen if India is strong and China is weak. This bottom line must always be kept in mind by New Delhi.

Is Stealth Technology really Stealth ?


We are now seeing Russian and Chinese "stealth" aircraft appear, at least in prototype form. The Chinese have prototypes of the J-20 large fighter bomber, which looks as if it may enter service with the Chinese Air Force in 2018. In a recently published report on Chinese military power, the US Department of Defense wrote that the J-20 shows "China's ambition to produce a fighter aircraft that incorporates stealth attributes, advanced avionics and supercruise capable engines." Supercruise in this context means that the aircraft can fly at supersonic speeds for sustained periods of time. This has only been achieved by the now grounded US SR-71 Blackbird reconnaissance jet and the F-22.

Monday, 28 July 2014

What Philippines need to save from China ?


The Philippines needs 48 F-16 jet fighters, four to six mini submarines, more armed frigates and corvette-size combat vessels and minesweepers if it is to have a credible military defense capability. The assessment of the center, an independent, non-partisan, and non-profit organization that develops strong, pragmatic and principled national security and defense proposals based in Washington, DC, came amid the standoff between Beijing and Manila over the Panatag or Scarborough Shoal, which is within the Philippines’ 200-mile exclusive economic zone but is being claimed by China as its own.

The shoal is a coral reef surrounding a lagoon, and it is 124 nautical miles from Zambales and 472 nautical miles from China’s Hainan province.

Pakistani Missiles and India



If recent missile tests are any indication, cruise missiles, rather than ballistic missiles, appear to be taking an increasingly more prominent role in Pakistan’s strategic force posture. The Babur (Hatf-7) land-attack cruise missile was inducted in past, and has been tested three times since. Pakistan’s newest cruise missile – the air-launched Ra’ad (Hatf-8) – has been tested four times in all.

Official Pakistani statements following the cruise missile tests have emphasised their “strategic” function. Instead of carrying conventional warheads, the cruise missiles are engineered to deliver either conventional or nuclear payloads. If it can overcome significant technological hurdles – including miniaturising nuclear warheads – Pakistan clearly envisions a nuclear role for its cruise missile programme. In light of the strategic aspirations for the Babur, how will Pakistan’s new and growing cruise missile arsenal influence India’s strategic behaviour?

US Medium Extended Air Defense System


The Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) program aimed to replace Patriot missiles in the United States, the older Hawk system in Germany, and Italy’s even older Nike Hercules missiles. MEADS will be designed to kill enemy aircraft, cruise missiles and UAVs within its reach, while providing next-generation point defense capabilities against ballistic missiles. MBDA’s SAMP/T project would be its main competitor, but MEADS aims to offer improved mobility and wider compatibility with other air defense systems, in order to create a linchpin for its customers’ next-generation air defense arrays.

The German government finally gave their clearance in April 2005, and in June 2005 MEADS International (MI) formally signed a contract worth approximately $3.4 billion to design and develop the tri-national MEADS system. In February 2011, however, events began to signal the likely end of the program.

GBU-53/B Small Diameter Bomb II



Raytheon Company's GBU-53/B Small Diameter Bomb II (SDB II) program achieved a major milestone when it successfully engaged and hit a moving target during a flight test at the White Sands Missile Range, N.M. Currently in engineering and manufacturing development, SDB II is designed to engage moving targets in adverse weather and through battlefield obscurants.

During the July 17 test, the crew of a U.S. Air Force F-15E fighter staging out of Holloman Air Force Base, N.M., released the GBU-53/B, which then acquired, tracked and guided to a moving target using its tri-mode seeker, scoring a direct hit.

DF-21D ballistic missile


Since the end of WWII, America's naval might has been undisputed and our aircraft carriers have been its crown jewels. However, the days of dominance could end with China's new DF-21D ballistic missile—the only device on Earth capable of sinking an aircraft carrier—four and a half acres of sovereign US territory—with one shot.

The DF-21D (Dong-Feng 21 variant D) is the world's first and only anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM). It's a two stage, land-launched missile with a maximum estimated range of 2,700 to 3,000 km. Its single fuel-air explosive warhead packs 200 to 500 kilotons. It was developed by China Changfeng Mechanics and Electronics Technology Academy as part of the country's massive military modernization effort, an initiative focused primarily on developing overwhelming missile technologies for which there are no effective defenses. The Defense Department believes it entered active service around 2009.

While the Chinese obviously aren't saying much on the inner workings of the new missile system, military experts believe it will rely on China's Over the Horizon radar (OTH) to monitor a 3,000-km swath of the South China Sea, where China is now claiming dominion over. The OTH system bounces its radar signal off the ionosphere to see past the curvature of the earth. If the OTH detects a carrier battle fleet, the system instigates a set of Yaogan satellites to search the area and provide precise targeting data. Additionally, when the OTH detects an approaching fleet, the system will reportedly launch a swarm of micro-satellites into low orbit where they will help refine the targeting data further and transmit it back to the onshore command center. Meanwhile, UAVs will be launched to track the fleet. Once the missile has been launched and separated from its first stage, the warhead employs synthetic aperture radar to find the carrier. It receives real time telemetry data as it locks onto its target and initiates its terminal descent.

This capability could be used to effectively deny US carriers from intervening in, say, the Taiwan Strait. It could also be used as a very large stick in resolving local territorial disputes. Many members of the security community also worry that the FAE warheads could easily be replaced with nuclear ones. If that occurred, it would very lead to an arms race with Japan and India (neither of whom are particularly fond of the Communist PRC). Or, it could dissolve the US-Russian INF Treaty, which prevents the two countries from from deploying short and intermediate range land-based ballistic and cruise missiles.

China`s first modern Attack Helicopter : Z-10


China  had developed its first modern military attack helicopter. The American company had entered the Chinese aviation software market, knowing that its export of modified software would allow China to test and develop its new military helicopter, called the Z-10. 

What is Z-10 ?

Primary mission of the Z-10 is ant-armor and battlefield interdiction. It also has some limited air-to-air combat capabilities. The Z-10 helicopter has a standard gunship configuration with a narrow fuselage and stepped tandem cockpits. Gunner is seated at the front and the pilot is at the rear. The fuselage has sloped sides to reduce radar cross section. All vital areas are believed to be protected by armor plates. Weapons of the Z-10 may consist of 30-mm cannon, HJ-9 anti-tank guided missiles (comparable to the TOW-2A), newly developed HJ-10 anti-tank missiles (comparable to the AGM-114 Hellfire) and TY-90 air-to-air missiles. It can also carry unoperated rocket pods.  The prototype of the Z-10 is powered by two Canadian Pratt & Whitney PT6C-67C turboshaft engines, delivering 1 531 hp each. However indigenous engines might be used on production helicopters. It might use the same engine of the WZ-9 helicopter, but it is less powerful than Canadian design. This helicopter may be fitted with a fly-by-wire control, helmet-mounted sight for head-up display, television and forward-looking infrared sensors, radar and laser warning receivers, infrared jammer and decoy dispensers.

Apache AH-64 VS MI 28 Havoc Vs Ka-50 Black Shark


MI 28 Havoc

The Mi-28 combat helicopter has been developed by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and is known by the NATO codename Havoc. In August 1996 Mil rolled out a prototype of the day and night capable version, the Mi-28N Night Havoc. The first production Mi-28N took its first flight in April 2004 and began flight testing with the Russian Air Force in June 2005.

The Russian Air Force has plans to procure up to 60 of this variant, now called the Mi-28NE Night Hunter.

"The Mi-28 can be armed with a mixture of air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles, unguided rockets, and podded guns. "Three were ordered in 2005 and 16 more in 2006 for delivery by 2008. The first production aircraft was delivered in May 2006 and began formal acceptance testing in September 2006. Five aircraft are involved in the testing which is scheduled to conclude in early 2008.

Mi-28 can fly at a maximum speed of 300km/h, can fly rearwards and sideways at speeds up to 100km/h and is able to hover turn at 45° a second.

Thursday, 24 July 2014

Russia prepares for future wars


The growing military potential of Japan and China - and continuing territorial disputes over the Kuril island chain and Arctic Shelf - is causing Russia to increase spending on her naval nuclear deterrent and blue-water forces.

Russian Ministry of Defence firmed up orders for four Project 955A Borey-A strategic missile underwater cruisers (submarines) and five Project 885M Yasen-M cruise-missile submarines. In early 2013 decisions were made to refit and modernization the Project 1144 nuclear powered cruisers and Project 949A cruise-missile submarines. By rough estimates, these commitments combined amount to US$ 10 billion. 

In January 2012 Russia handed over the K-152 Nerpa fast attack submarine to the Indian navy on a ten-year lease, the deal reportedly worth US$ 0.9 billion. These and other recent moves may lead to changes in the current balance of forces in the Asia-Pacific region. 

Top 10 Submarines


10 : Los Angeles Class – USA

Units built - 62
Active - 44
Speed 20 knots – Surfaced33+ knots – Submerged
Endurance - 30 days
Range Refueling after 30 years
Weapons carried 4 bow tubes10Mk48 ADCAP torpedo reloadsTomahawk land attack missile block 3 SLCM
Harpoon anti–surface ship missile
Mine laying Mk67
Mobile Mk60 captor mines

The Los Angeles class submarines form the backbone of the US Navy’s nuclear powered attack and their primary mission is to hunt down enemy submarines and gather intelligence. This class was preceded by Sturgeon class and followed by Seawolf and Virginia class. The final 23 boats of this class are quieter than their predecessors and incorporate more advanced combat systems.

Can India perform Special Operations inside other Countries ?


The relentless pursuit of Osama Bin Laden ever since 9/11 occurred and his elimination early May by US Special Forces in the spectacular ‘Operation Geronimo’ has been a landmark event in the conduct of counter-terrorism operations. That this dreaded terrorist was found hiding in Abbottabad, a cantonment city of Pakistan that also hosts Pakistan Army’s premier Military Training Academy, did not come as a surprise to India which considers Pakistan as a state that sponsors terrorism.

If IAF Attacks Pakistani ….


If India decides to plan a first lookout attack on pakistani soil it would go forward with nitial strike carried out by MiG-27's, MiG-23's, MiG-21's and Jaguar's on forward Pakistani command posts, airfields, weapon storage facilities (namely nuclear weapons and IRBM) and communication relay stations escorted by Su30MkI , MiG 29's, Mirage 2000. While the Indian Naval Harriers , MiG 29k's , Harriers and attack craft attack the port of Karachi in an attempt to close it to keep reinforcements from sympathetic Islamic countries coming in via sea. Though LCA, Rafale and T-50 is far far away from induction so main responsibilities will be on MKI`s against F-16`s and JF-17 Thunder.

Rafale Omnirole fighter


The Rafale omnirole fighter reached two major milestones: the first delivery of a production aircraft equipped with the first production RBE2 AESA radar, and the initial successful testing of the new-generation, very long-range, Meteor air-to-air missile.

Pushing forward on new air-to-air capabilities, the Rafale B301, operating from Cazaux DGA Flight Test Center in south-western France, successfully completed, tests of the beyond visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) Meteor.

Future Weapon System for Indian Armed Forces



P8i Poseidon

Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, to the Indian Navy. In 2009, the Ministry of Defence of India signed an agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8I Poseidons at a total cost of US$2.1 billion. These aircraft would replace Indian Navy's aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops. Each aircraft will cost about US$220 million. The deal not only made India the first international customer of the P-8, but also marked Boeing's first military sale to India.

On May 12, 2010 Boeing announced that it received the Data Link II communications technology for the Indian Navy’s P-8I from Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) in April, one month ahead of schedule. BEL delivered the Indian-designed communications system that will enable exchange of tactical data and messages between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments. By 2014 , India have already received 3 of these aircraft's.

Tuesday, 22 July 2014

JF-17 Vs Su-30 MkI


Jf-17, also known as CAC FC-1 (Fighter China-1), is an 4th gen multirole, all metal frame fighter designed by China for Pakistani airforce and mass exports. Its main strength is its cheap pricetag. Though originally intended for both Chinese and Pakistani Ariforce, now China has decided to skip its induction and focus on J-10 instead. China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation has stated that the JF-17's low cost is due to its on-board systems being adapted and scaled down from the those of the Chengdu J-10. "This transfer of technology - transposing the aircraft systems from the J-10 to the JF-17 - is what makes the JF-17 so cost-effective." Though to achieve low cost its airframe is completely devoid of Carbon-fiber composites, limiting its projected lifespan as no modern fighter is based on all metal airframe. It produces an thrust of 85 kn with afterburner and has 7 hardpoints for carrying weapons. All said and done Jf-17 (Block 1) is priced at $20 million which is pretty low.

  • Crew: 1
  • Unit cost: US$ 15 million (estimated)
  • Max takeoff weight: 12,700 kg
  • Powerplant: 1× Klimov RD-93 turbofan
  • Maximum Speed : Mach 1.8
  • Radar: Italian Grifo S-7 ?
  • Range: 3,000 km
  • Thrust/weight: 0.99
  • Rate of climb: 175 m/s ?
  • Service ceiling: 16,700 m
  • G-limit:+8.5 g
  • hardpoints: 7 hardpoints being increased to 9
UNIQUE FEATURES

  • +Ra'ad ALCM is planned to be integrated with and launched from JF-17.
  • +The EW suite is also linked to a missile approach warning (MAW) system to help it defend against radar-guided missiles.
  • +NRIET KLJ-7 radar's multiple modes allow surveillance and simultaneous engagement of multiple air, ground and sea targets, of which a total of 40 can be managed. Using the track-while-scan (TWS) mode, the radar can track up to 10 targets at beyond visual range (BVR) and engage 2 of them simultaneously with radar homing air-to-air missiles. The operation range for targets with a radar cross-section (RCS) of 5 m2 ;105 km in look-up mode and & 85 km in look-down mode.

IAF Vs PLAAF and PAF


The basic characteristics of air power are speed, reach, flexibility, mobility and lethality. Presently, even when India’s land forces possess far greater combat capability than they ever did, the IAF is still viewed as the principal rapid response component of Indian military power. In the prevailing scenario the possibility of limited war under the nuclear shadow being more likely, the role of the IAF has become even more critical.

In numerical terms, the IAF has to confront two adversaries, Pakistan and China, who routinely maintain close to 700 combat aircraft equivalent to the IAFs own strength…

Indian air power therefore, must be potent enough to achieve air superiority to permit the three services to successfully carry out their assigned missions. For such a strategy to be successful, requires the IAF to maintain significant quantitative and qualitative superiority against Pakistan and sufficiently dissuasive power against China. India successfully managed to maintain superiority in force levels throughout the 1980s with a 2.9:1 advantage in combat aircraft over Pakistan. The current shortfall in combat potential has cut deeply into the comprehensive air superiority essential to India’s military strategy.

Chinese Airforce far advanced than Indian Airforce


PLAAF : An Emerging Aerospace Power

A visionary, long-term and time-bound approach to military modernisation, supported by a strong and innovative military-industrial capability has transformed the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force(PLAAF) of China, from an antiquated, derelict, poorly trained and over-sized force to a modern aerospace power with increasing proficiency to undertake its stated missions in the 21st Century. The Indian establishment, especially the Indian Air Force (IAF), needs to absorb this reality and restructure its modernisation plans. The Indian security environment is being continuously impacted by China’s rise, militarily and economically as a global power.

The foundations of China’s long term plan for its modernisation programme were laid in 2010 and aims at major progress by 2020. By 2050 China would accomplish its strategic goal of building an ‘informatized’ (net-centric warfare enabled) armed forces capable of winning wars. Perhaps the unstated objective of the plan is to expand China’s ‘comprehensive national power’ beyond the existing regional status. China’s plan to ‘lay a solid foundation by 2010’ appears to have been achieved as demonstrated by the large-scale exercise ‘Stride-2009’ held to coincide with 50 years celebration of communist rule in China. 50,000 troops were moved from regions in the West to the East. The objective of Stride-2009 was to test the ability to move forces on a large-scale from the areas they had trained in to areas they were unfamiliar with. Another aim was to subject the massive rail, road and air infrastructure created over the years to heavy military movement pressure and examine if such pressure adversely affected civilian population. The PLAAF played an important role in this exercise.